INST 480: Comparative Indigenous Models of Government Report a Broken Link

This course, using an international perspective, will analyze, discuss and compare traditional models of Indigenous Government and show how the imposition of Western and European government systems has influenced them. Case studies will include the Iroquois Confederacy; the Navajo Nation in North America; the Mapuche and Quechua Nations in South America; the Maori Nations of New Zealand; and, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia. Contemporary efforts by Indigenous peoples envisioning and developing Self-government will be explored.

Unit 1


Required Readings
From the Reading File:

Dunbar Ortiz, Roxanne. 1984. Indians of the Americas: Human Rights and Self-determination. New York: Praaeger Pulishers, pp. 145-156.

From the Reading File:

Faron, L. C. 1961. Mapuche Social Structure. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Introduction, pp. 5-11.

Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages, Australian Indigenous Languages
Mariqueo, R. 2002. Introduction. Mapuche Nation Organisation.
From the Reading File:

Metge, Joan. The Maoris of New Zealand, revised edition (Routedge and Kegan Paul: London, Henley and Boston, 1976). pp. 1-4.

Ramirez, Jose M. 1990/91. "Transpacific Contacts: The Mapuche Connection," Rapa Nui Journal, Vol 4 (4), pp. 53-55.
Rose, M. 1999. The Importance of Monte Verde.
From Reading File:

Wright, R. 1992. Stolen Continents. The "New World" Through Indian Eyes Since 1492. Toronto: Penguin Books, Chapter Fifteen, Iroquois, pp. 313-342.

Unit 2


Required Readings

Alfred, Taiaiake. Peace Power, Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto (Oxford UP, 1999). pp. x1-xxiv.

2.1 Traditional social and political organization, thier system of values and beliefs and its relationship to the Natural Environment.

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Murphy, Gerald. 1998. About the Iroquois Constitution, pp. 1 & 2.

2.1 Traditional social and political organization, thier system of values and beliefs and its relationship to the Natural Environment.

Atleo, E.R. 1999. A First Nations Perspective on Ecosystem Management.

2.1 Traditional social and political organization, thier system of values and beliefs and its relationship to the Natural Environment.

The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations: The Great Binding Law, Gayanashagowa. pps. 1 & 2.

2.1 Traditional social and political organization, thier system of values and beliefs and its relationship to the Natural Environment.

Alfred, Taiaiake. Peace Power, Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto (Oxford UP, 1999). pp. 24-30.

2.1 Traditional social and political organization, thier system of values and beliefs and its relationship to the Natural Environment.

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Josephy, A.M., 500 Nations (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1994). Ch. 1, "The Hodenosaunne: Dawn of Democracy", pp. 44-53.

2.1 Traditional social and political organization, thier system of values and beliefs and its relationship to the Natural Environment.

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Michael Yellow Bird. What We Want to Be Called: Indigenous Peoples' Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Identity Labels. American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 23, 1999.

2.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

The Royal Commision on Aboriginal Peoples. 1996. Report of the Royal Commision on Aboriginal Peoples: Looking Forward, Looking Back, vol. 4. 278.

2.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Sally Roesch Wagner, "The Iroquois Influence on Women's Rights," Jose Barreiro, ed., Indian Roots of American Democracy, (Ithica, New York: Akwekon Press, (1992) 118.

2.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Click here to request a print copy of this article from the AU Library.

From the Reading File:

Wright, R. 1992. Stolen Continents. The "New World" Through Indian Eyes Since 1492. Toronto: Penguin Books, Chapter Fifteen, Iroquois, pp. 316-319.

2.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Council at Kahnawake. 1996.

2.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Nationhood and Self-government.

Border Crossing Rights, American Indian Law Alliance, New York, 2-3.

2.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Nationhood and Self-government.

Blanchard, David.

1980. Kahnawake: A Historical Sketch. Kahnawake, Quebec: Kanien'kehaka Taotitohkwa Press.

2.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Nationhood and Self-government.

Alfred, Taiaiake. Peace Power, Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto (Oxford UP, 1999). p. 120.

2.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Nationhood and Self-government.

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Alfred, Taiaiake. Peace Power, Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto (Oxford UP, 1999). pp. 136-137.

2.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Nationhood and Self-government.

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Unit 3


Required Readings

Bellah, Robert N. 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, pp. 281-82.

3.1 Traditional laws and government structures, their system of values and beliefs and their relationship to the Natural Environment.

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Navajo Sacred Mountains. pp. 1-8.

3.1 Traditional laws and government structures, their system of values and beliefs and their relationship to the Natural Environment.

Mill, George. 1959. Navajo Art and Culture. Colorado Springs: Taylor Museum, Ch. 7 A Quest For Harmony, pp. 115-118.

3.1 Traditional laws and government structures, their system of values and beliefs and their relationship to the Natural Environment.

Shepardson, Mary. 1963. Navajo Ways in Government: A Study in Political Process. Wisconsin: Banta Company, Ch. 2. & Ch. 6.

3.1 Traditional laws and government structures, their system of values and beliefs and their relationship to the Natural Environment.

'Fundamental Laws of the Dine'. pp. 1-8.

3.1 Traditional laws and government structures, their system of values and beliefs and their relationship to the Natural Environment.

Deloria, Jr. V. 1973. God is Red. New York: Grossett & Dunlap, pg. 258.

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

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Lawrence, Kelly. 1968. The Navajo Indians and Federal Indian Policy. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press. pp. 22-25.

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

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Raymond Friday Locke. 1989. The Book of the Navajo. Los Angeles: Mankind Publishing Company. 4th Edition, pp. 153-54, 376-90 and 506-23.

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

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Joseph P. Sanchez. "The Rio Abajo Frontier 1540-1692: A History of Early Colonial New Mexico." Albuquerque: The Albuquerque Museum, 1987. Cycles of Conquest, pp. 21-23

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

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Edward H. Spicer. 1962. Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest 1533-1960. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press. pp. 1-15.

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

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White, Richard. 1984. The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change Among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 215-249.

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

U.S. (1868) Treaty with the Navajos.

3.2 Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Shirley, Joe, President of the Navajo Nation. 2010. State of the Navajo Nation Address. Navajo President's Office and Chapter Locator plus Navajo Links (2)

3.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Education for Self-Determination and Nationhood.

Rushton, Ted 1998. President Hale's Address to the Arizona Legislature.

3.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Education for Self-Determination and Nationhood.

Lapahie, Harrison. 1999. Navajo Government & Education. pp. 1-2 3.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Education for Self-Determination and Nationhood.

Kluckhohn Clyde & Leighton, Dorothea. 1962. The Navajo. New York, Anchor Books. pp. 163-166.

3.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Education for Self-Determination and Nationhood.

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Navajo Nation Website.

3.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Education for Self-Determination and Nationhood.

Unit 4


Required Readings
From the Reading File:

Metge, Joan. 1976. The Maoris of New Zealand, revised edition. Routledge and kegan Paul: London, Henley and Boston. pp. 1-49.

4.1 Traditional Maori social and political organization at contact.

Bourassa, Steven C. and Ann Louise Strong. "The Restitution of Land to New Zealand Maori: The Role of Social Structure." Pacific Affairs, Summer 2002, Vol. 75, No. 2 pp. 227-236.

4.2 Colonization: Impact of settlement, war and colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure of the Maori.

Maxwell, Gabrielle. 2000. "Implementing Restorative Justice in the International Context. Crossingt Cultural Boundries: The Experience of Family Group Conferences."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Tauri, Juan Marcellus. 2003. "Family Group Conferencing: The Myth of Indigenous Empowerment in New Zealand."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Government of New Zealand. "Young Peoples Rights & the Law."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Government of New Zealand. "Information for Victims of Youth Offending."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Government of New Zealand. "Youth Justice."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Government of New Zealand. "Family Group Conferences."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Government of New Zealand. "The Family Court."

4.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Youth Justice and Family Group Conferences.

Bourassa, Steven C. and Ann Louise Strong. "The Restitution of Land to New Zealand Maori: The Role of Social Structure." Pacific Affairs, Summer 2002, Vol. 75, No. 2 pp. 236-260.

4.4 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government: Negotiating Land and Resources.

Unit 5


Required Readings
Indigenous Australia.

5.1 Traditional social and political organization of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples at contact.

Reynolds, Henry. 1996. Aboriginal Sovereignty: Three Nations, One Australia. Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd., Australia. pp. ix-38.

5.2 The impact of Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Click here to request a print copy of this article from the AU Library.

Rigney, Lester-Irabinna. 2002. Bread verses Freedom: Treaty and Stabilizing Indigenous Languages. A Paper delivered at the National Treaty Conference, Canberra, August 2002.

5.2 The impact of Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Saunders, Douglas.

1999. Indigenous and Tribal Peoples: The Right to Live on Their Own Land. A paper delivered at the 12th Commonwealth Law Conference, Malaysia.

5.2 The impact of Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, 10 December 1984.

5.2 The impact of Colonization: Impact of colonial legislation on the Indigenous political, economic and social community structure.

Attwood, Bain. 1996. In the Age of MABO: History, Aboriginies and Australia. Allen & Unwin, Australia. Introduction, Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4.

5.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government.

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Attwood, Bain and Andrew Markus. 1999. The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights: A Documentary History. National Library of Australia, Australia. Introduction, Chapter One & pp. 324-329.

5.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government.

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Behrendt, Larissa. 2001. The Relevance of the Rights Agenda in the Age of Practical Reconciliation. A paper Delivered at the Future of Rights: Treaties, Self-Determination and Austrlian Indigenous Peoples Symposium, Sydney University, 17th December.

5.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government.

Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages.

5.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government.

Howard, John. 2000. Reconciliation in Australia Today. Current Issues in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs lecture series, Sydney, December 2000.

5.3 Emerging Contemporary Models of Indigenous Government.

Unit 6

Required Readings


From the Reading File:

Faron, L.C. 1961. Mapuche Social Structure. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Chapter 9, Ritual Congregationalism, pp. 211-217.

6.1 Social and political organization.

Faron, L.C. 1968. The Mapuche Indians of Chile. New York: Holdt, Rinehart and Winston. Chapter 11, Gods and the Afterworld, pp. 63-71.

6.1 Social and political organization.

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Faron, L.C. 1968. The Mapuche Indians of Chile. New York: Holdt, Rinehart and Winston. Chapter 15, Fertility Rites, pp. 99-106.

6.1 Social and political organization.

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Marhiquewun, R. Mapuche Culture.

6.1 Social and political organization.

Marileo, A. The Mapuche Universe. Equilibrium and Harmony. Mapuche Documentation Center.

6.1 Social and political organization.

Mariqueo, R. Social Organization.

6.1 Social and political organization.

Rios, S. History and Society About the Mapuche People-Their History and Social Organization.

6.1 Social and political organization.

Aylwin J. 1998. Indigenous Peoples Rights in Chile: Progresses and Contradictions in a Context of Economic Globalization. Section 1, Introduction and Section 2, Historical background.

6.2 The impact of colonization on the Mapuche political, economic and social structures.

Faron, L.C. 1968. The Mapuche Indians of Chile. New York: Holdt, Rinehart and Winston. Chapter 2, Warfare and Peace, pp. 9-14.

6.2 The impact of colonization on the Mapuche political, economic and social structures.

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Faron, L.C. 1961. The Mapuche Indians of Chile. New York: Holdt, Rinehart and Winston. Chapter 5, The Reservation as Political Unit, pp. 102-122.

6.2 The impact of colonization on the Mapuche political, economic and social structures.

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Faron, L.C. 1968. The Mapuche Indians of Chile. New York: Holdt, Rinehart and Winston. Chapter 10, Political Life, pp. 57-62.

6.2 The impact of colonization on the Mapuche political, economic and social structures.

Click here to request a print copy of this article from the AU Library.

Anaquod, D., Thomas M., and Taylor, K.I. 1984. Report on the Present Situation of the Mapuche in Chile. Presented to the Working group on Indigenous Populations of the United Nations.

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Ancan Jara, J. 1997. Urban Mapuches: Reflections on a Modern Reality in Chile. Abya Yala News, 10 (3).

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Aylwin, J. 1998. Indigenous Peoples Rights in Chile: Progresses and Contradictions in a context of Economic Globalization. Section 3, Current Situation of Indigenous Peoples, 3.1. The Mapuches and Section 4, Indigenous Peoples Rights under Democracy: Progresses and Contradictions.

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Mariman, J. 1990. The Mapuche Issue, State decentralization and regional autonomy. Mapuche International Link/Articles.

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Painemal, M and MacFall, S. 2000. Cultural Resistance.... Being a Mapuche Woman in Chile 2000.

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Reyes, Andrea A. 2001. Shadows in the Big City. UNESCO Courier, 54 (9).

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Strunk, C. 2003. Chile Condemned for Treatment of Its Indigenous Population. Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Memorandum to the Press.

6.3 Emerging Contemporary Forms of Indigenous Resistance: The new strategies in Mapuche political struggle.

Supplementary Readings

Aldunate, C. 1996. Mapuche Gente de la Tierra. In Hidalgo, J., Schiappacasse, V., Niemeyer, F., Aldunate, C. y Mege, P. (Eds.). Culturas de Chile, Volumen Segundo. Etnografia. Sociedades Indigenas Contemporaneas y su Ideologia. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Andres Bello.

6.1 Social and political organization.

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Aldunate, C. 1996. Mapuche Gente de la Tierra. In Hidalgo, J., Schiappacasse, V., Niemeyer, F., Aldunate, C. y Mege, P. (Eds.). Culturas de Chile, Volumen Segundo. Etnografia. Sociedades Indigenas Contemporaneas y su Ideologia. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Andres Bello.

6.2 The impact of colonization on the Mapuche political, economic and social structures.

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Unit 7


Supplementary Readings

Hylton, J.H. 1994. Future Prospects for Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada. In: Hylton, J. (Ed.). Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Purich Publishing.

7.2 Researching the Canadian Context.

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