PSYC 388 Version 2004: Introduction to Counselling Report a Broken Link

PSYC 388 is a survey course designed to increase students' awareness of the field of counseling, including its evolution, processes and specialties.

Note regarding Items without links: Use this form to request a print copy of article, book chapter, etc. from the AU Library.

Unit 1: History and Trends in Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on a topic presented in Unit 1. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
Addresses the four traditions that have shaped the field of counselling psychology: trait and factor, developmental, humanistic, and behavioral. Examines the effects of professionalization, managed care, diversity and gender issues, and the practice of psychotherapy.
Examines online counselling and distance learning, which present both opportunities and challenges. Discusses how the counselling process can be enhanced using the latest technology.
Addresses issues relating to the impact of the economy, technology, policy initiatives, and social conditions on the profession of counselling. Provides projections of career options and future directions for the profession in general.

Goodyear, R. K., Cortese, J. R., Guzzardo, C. R., Allison, R. D., Claiborn, C. D., & Packard, T. (2000). Factors, trends, and topics in the evolution of counseling psychology training. Counseling Psychologist, 28(5), 603-621.

Discusses six forces affecting the content and process of counselling psychology training: market forces, practitioner-educator dialogues, expectations and directives from within the profession, social and political forces, technological innovations, and cultural context of counselling psychology.

Provides an overview of the counselling profession from the perspective of counselling and psychotherapy as an art and a science. Theme is extended throughout the book in an effort to create a balance in terms of subjective and objective dimensions of counselling.
Describes six new trends leading into the new millennium, including psychotherapy integration, specialization, managed care, expanding scope of the practice, cultural diversity, and psychotherapy without walls.

Unit 2: Personal and Professional Aspects of Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 2. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
Addresses the knowledge, skills, and specific procedures required in order to evaluate practitioners' practices.
Guides counselling and psychotherapy trainees through the day-to-day challenges they are likely to face, including the specific needs of: (1) finding the right training course, (2) improving written communication skills, and (3) dealing with anxieties provoked by the practical aspects of such training courses.
The wide range of human despair, conflict, and suffering that therapists deal with in their professional lives can take an emotional toll on their personal lives. Using examples from Freud, Rogers, Perls, and extensive interviews with current practitioners, Kottler demonstrates how therapists can use the insights gained from their clients' experiences to solve their own problems, encourage positive change in themselves, and become better therapists.
What consistently works for successful practitioners? Kottler identifies the traits of an effective therapist’s repertoire by examining colleagues’ and his own professional experiences. Common attributes of successful outcomes are analysed, resulting in a synthesis of approaches.
The perils of practising psychotherapy include: (1) the emotional impact of clinical work on a psychotherapist, (2) the stresses and strains the practice of psychotherapy can exert on a marriage, (3) the role of parenting and psychotherapy, (4) the disillusionment and physical and psychic isolation of clinical work, (5) the struggles of a therapist who suffers from characterological problems of his or her own, and (6) the extreme hazards of dealing with suicidal patients. Sussman examines each of these perils in turn, and then explores the additional concerns of a therapist's personal development and his or her unconscious motivations for becoming a therapist in the first place.

Unit 3: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Counselling


Required Readings
The Required Readings can also be located in the Reading File.
This is an on-line version of the CCA Code of Ethics, and it outlines the ethical principles by which counsellors are expected to abide.
Addresses four ethical principles that psychologists must consider: respect for the dignity of persons, responsible caring, integrity in relationships, and responsibility to society.
Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 3. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
This site presents the American Counseling Association's code of ethics and standards of practice as well a practitioner's guide to ethics, frequently asked questions about counseling ethics, a layperson's guide to counselor ethics, and ethical standards for Internet online counselling.
Addresses the importance of advocates and therapists being extremely clear regarding their boundaries and their own issues concerning their childhood.

Comprehensive examination of the complex, multifaceted process of psychology regulation in the US and in Canada.
Prepared in response to the adoption of the revised Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 2000.
Examines various ethical dilemmas that counsellors face; student version is accompanied by a workbook (60 min.).

Durana, C.  (1998). The use of touch in psychotherapy: Ethical and clinical guidelines. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 35(2), 269–280.

A lack of consensus exists about the use of touch and the complex ethical and clinical issues surrounding its use. This article reviews the clinical and research literature, and explores views for and against using touch in therapy.

Finfgeld, D. L.  (1999). Psychotherapy in cyberspace. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 5(4), 105–110.

Addresses the ethical, legal, and practical issues of delivering mental health services through technological trends and applications (e.g., e–mail). Also investigates the long–term efficacy and cost–effectiveness of such innovations.

In an interdisciplinary manner, Ford discusses the ethical codes of psychology and counselling, promoting a better understanding of the similarities and differences in the points of emphasis in the two codes.
Clarifies issues related to the five sections of the CGCA ethical guidelines: professional behaviour, confidentiality, boundary violations, testing and research ethics, and teaching ethics.
Discusses legal and ethical issues related to confidentiality in counselling with minors. Describes ways to inform minors about confidentiality and exceptions to the promise of privacy. Confidentiality is also addressed in the special situation of interagency collaborations.
The Ellis/Szasz debate. Two internationally renowned authorities debate mental illness.

Unit 4: Counselling in a Multicultural and Diverse Society


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 4. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.

Arthur, N., & Januszkowski, T. (2001). The multicultural counselling competencies of Canadian counsellors. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 35(1), 36-48.

Investigates value conflicts between counsellors and multicultural clients.

Illustrates the complex developmental process of personal change and social transformation experienced by the nine men interviewed.
Counseling African American presents some specific challenges to counselors. This article presents the historical and cultural perspectives of counseling African American men, issues that need to be considered, a possible framework to use when counseling African American men, and a case study illustrating the counseling of an African American man.
This video focuses on living together and better, and highlights the inspiring lives of five people over the age of 70 (28 min.).
Native people in western Canada today face a myriad of complex questions in virtually every sphere of functioning—legal, economic, educational, and spiritual, to name a few.
Presents research ideas for further study of the role of multicultural counselling competencies in counselling and psychotherapy.
Links spiritual values with multicultural learning.
Examines sexism and how it affects counselling sessions. How to address women's issues in counselling is discussed, with specific attention given to the issues unique to counselling African American women (74 min.).
Some of the myths that Asian Americans face are discussed in this article, as well as some of the reasons why Asian Americans are less likely to seek counseling than other people.
Illustrates how cross-cultural issues can arise between counsellors and clients. Volume 1 features ethical issues. Volume 2 focuses on issues of diversity (73 min. total).
Pepper Schwartz explores the lives of two couples, one gay and the other lesbian. Schwartz examines each couple's views on communication, conflict-resolution, family, friends, and the influence of gender and society (50 min.).
Explores the psychological sources of the more common emotional difficulties of men, and offers specific techniques to help therapists overcome men's traditional resistance to therapy.
Examines how culture is responsible for many differences in human behaviour between people from different backgrounds (23 min.).
Theory-based and practice-based approaches for cross-cultural counselling are discussed by Derald Wing Sue. Emphasizes the need to understand cross-cultural issues and cultural differences (75 min.).
Addresses the need for a balance between the need for mental health professionals to understand cultural differences reflected in worldviews, on the one hand, and the sociopolitical nature of clinical applications, on the other.

Thomas, K. R., & Weinrach, S. G.  (1999). Multiculturalism in counselling and applied psychology: A critical perspective. Educational & Child Psychology, 16(4), 70–83.

Addresses diversity, problems with stereotyping, promotion of racial and ethnic labels, cultural relativism, and challenging racism in educational settings.

Describes several recent immigrant groups in western Canada, including Vietnamese, South and Southeast Asian, Chinese, Japanese, Central American, West Indian, and Iranian groups.

Unit 5: Building a Counselling Relationship


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 5. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
A number of suggestions for counselors who are meeting a client for the first interview are provided in this article.

Cross, M. C., & Papadopoulos, L.  (1999). Helping trainee counselling psychologists: Answers to some common questions. Counselling Psychology Review, 14(3), 17–29.

Presents a range of commonly experienced anxieties encountered by counselling psychologist trainees.

Argues for a flexible and humane approach to psychotherapy, and describes the value and beauty of learning how to truly listen to patients.
Defines the core communication skills essential to any interview, and demonstrates how to use them effectively in a variety of situations, including those with multicultural considerations.
Focuses on the non-directive counselling style originated by Carl Rogers, but also uses ideas from Gestalt therapy, rational emotive therapy, and neurolinguistic programming.
Addresses how to organize an approach to the initial phase of treatment. Includes sample forms, questionnaires, and examples of completed assessments.
Summarizes the tasks and the processes of learning and writing required on counselling training courses and in the practice of counselling.
Comprehensively demonstrates how to conduct a successful mental health diagnostic interview, with reference to DSM-IV criteria and covering the range of problems and personalities that interviewers typically encounter
Addresses the ethical requirement of psychotherapists to inform clients about their treatment methods, alternative treatments, and other possible conceptions of their problem.
Reveals how mental health professionals can conduct a successful initial interview with reluctant and uncooperative adolescent clients.
Emphasizes, from an integrative/eclectic perspective, the scientific foundations and interpersonal aspects of mental health interviewing. Incorporates modifications made necessary by the increase of managed care and by revised thinking in the interviewing field related to Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV).

Unit 6: The Assessment Interview: Testing, Assessment, and Diagnosis in Counselling


Required Readings
The Required Readings can be located in the Reading File.
Davidshofer, C. O. (1988). Jackson Vocational Interest Survey. In J.T. Knapes & M.M. Mastie (Eds.), A counselor's guide to career assessment instruments (2nd ed.) (pp. 95-99). Alexandria, VA: National Career Development Association.
Summarizes the format, administration, scoring, reliability, validity, and shortcomings of the JVIS.
Jepsen, D.A. (1994). Review of Jackson Vocational Interest Survey. In J.T. Kapes, M.M. Mastie, & E.A. Whitfield (Eds.), A counselor's guide to career assessment instruments (3rd ed.) (pp. 183-188). Alexandria, VA: National Career Development Association.
A description and critique of the JVIS is provided, as well as a summary of its uses in counseling.
Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 6. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
This site provides a brief description of the history of the JVIS, frequently asked questions, how the test was constructed, and psychometric properties of the JVIS.
The DSM-IV provides specified diagnostic criteria that are offered as guidelines for making diagnoses; the use of such criteria enhances agreement among clinicians and investigators. Specialized clinical training—providing both a body of knowledge and clinical skills—is required for the proper use of these criteria.
Addresses the responsibilities that testers have in selecting appropriate tests and in methods of presenting testing to the individual.
Describes how the person reliability index of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey was used to obtain information about within session profile stability, interest crystallization, career certainty, career indecision, and across session person reliability.
Reviews the most commonly used psychological assessment tests and points out the most efficient methods for selecting tests, evaluating interview data, and integrating results into a cohesive psychological report.
A brief explanation about the importance of assessing interests is provided at this web site, as well as a discussion about the reliability of the JVIS. The critiques and applications of the JVIS are also addressed.

Jackson, D. N., & Holden, R. R.  (1984). Taxonomy of vocational interests of academic major areas. Journal of Educational Measurement, 21(30), 261-275.

Addresses how the scores from the JVIS can be clustered into meaningful categories to increase reliability, predictive validity and construct validity. The role of gender in the interpretation of the clusters is also discussed.

Jackson, D. N., Paunonen, S. V., & Rothstein, M. G.  (1987). Personnel executives: Personality, vocational interests, and job satisfaction. Journal of Employment Counselling, 24, 82-95.

Addresses how personality and interest inventories such as the JVIS can be potentially used for vocational counselling, personnel selection, and predicting job satisfaction.

Jackson, D. N., & Williams, D. R.  (1975). Occupational classification in terms of interest patterns. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 6, 269-280.

Discuss how the 189 possible occupational interest profiles of the JVIS can be reduced to 23 distinct occupational groups by subjecting the test to factor analysis.

Juni, S., & Koenig, E. J.  (1982). Contingency validity as a requirement in forced-choice item construction: A critique of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey. Measurement and Evaluation, 14(4), 202-207.

Article discusses the item construction of the JVIS, describes the types of scales and statements which characterize the JVIS, critiques the JVIS by describing the problems encountered by people who have taken the test, and addresses the issue of face validity.

Moloney, D. P., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., & Segal, N. L.  (1991). A genetic and environmental analysis of the vocational interests of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared apart. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 76-109.

In this study, the JVIS and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank—Strong Campbell Interest Inventory are used to determine that vocational interests are partly heritable.

Examines the fundamental issues of interest theory and practice by opening with an exploration of the conceptual definitions and theoretical implications of vocational interests.
This site provides some descriptive information about the JVIS, along with reliability and validity data.

Spitzer, D., & Levinson, E. M.  (1988). A review of selected vocational interest inventories for use by school psychologists. School Psychology Review, 17(4), 673-692.

Ten vocational interest inventories are reviewed in this article, including the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey. The review briefly discusses the purpose and nature of the JVIS, as well as the technical merits of the test.

Discusses three competencies that counsellors must have for adult assessments: (1) training in good test-use practices, (2) awareness of the shift in education from using psychometric models to using edumetric ones, and (3) practice in an edumetric framework.
Provides important information on tests of value to counsellors, on how counsellors think about and use tests, and on how counsellors can use different types of test information in counselling.

Unit 7: Working in a Counselling Relationship


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 7. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.

Andersen, S. M., & Miranda, R.  (2000). Transference: How past relationships emerge in the present. Psychologist, 13(12), 608–609.

Addresses the clinical concept of transference, and shows that Freud got it only partly right.

Examines empathy and how it operates in the therapy context.
In the course of working with a client in counselling, various specific defense mechanisms may arise. Presents the theoretical origins, psychopathology, and definition of each mechanism.
In this video, Dr. Samuel Gladding offers a supplementary resource to accompany his textbook. Presented in a series of mock vignettes, the author illustrates and discusses what he considers to be the nine most important counselling skills.
Focuses on the role of self-disclosure in close relationships.
This four-volume video series illustrates through mock-cases how to use the basic counselling skills in actual counselling sessions. Some of the areas covered include using empathy, confronting, observing, and questioning. Effective and ineffective methods for handling certain situations are presented and contrasted. (233-minutes).
Site provides an image of the Johari window and explains what they various quadrants imply about interpersonal relationships.
Intended for those working in the helping professions who wish to improve their communication and counselling skills. Explains the essentials of good practice for information and helping services.
This video breaks down basic skills for interviewing into five areas: listening, reflecting, questioning, expressing, and interpreting. Techniques for using these skills are shown separately and then a final vignette is shown incorporating all five skills. (52 minutes).
Article discusses how one clinician has found an effective use for humour in healing his clients.
Focusing on Allen Ivey’s basic counselling skills, this video is ideal for helping counsellors-in-training learn how to use reflecting, paraphrasing, summarizing, and open and closed questioning. (110 minutes).

Unit 8: Termination of Counselling Relationships


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 8. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.

Harari, M., & Waehler, C.  (1999). The effect of first session attention to termination on counselor social influence rating. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 13(4), 67–79.

Empirically evaluates the effects of discussing termination during an initial analogue counselling session.

The process of ending therapy is likened to the ordinary developmental task of letting go that parents have to undertake to help their child to grow up. Letting go is contrasted with the process of holding the child in mind that is so central to the therapeutic and parental task. Countertransference issues in their broadest form are also considered.
Providing clear and straightforward guidelines, ethical issues and the need to be aware of limits of competency are emphasized.
Equally counterproductive are bringing therapy to an end too early or too late.

Orgel, S. (2000). Letting go: Some thoughts about termination. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(3), 719–738.

Termination of analysis is discussed from three perspectives, with the author arguing that termination contains essential elements of the psychoanalytic process itself, such as attachment, loss, and mourning.

Describes an application of child psychotherapy in a pediatric setting, examining the crucial part that attention to endings played in a clinical intervention where the fantasy of going on forever threatened to inhibit growth.
Endings arouse deep-seated anxieties; hence this topic tends to be neglected.

Unit 9: Psychoanalytic, Adlerian, and Humanistic Theories of Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 9. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
Describes Individual Psychology, the approach to counselling developed by Adler.
Provides an overview of psychoanalytic, Adlerian, person–centered, existential, and Gestalt theories of counselling.
Provides the history, basic theoretical assumptions, applications, and case examples of various psychotherapies. The theories described include psychoanalytic, Adlerian, person–centered, existential, and Gestalt psychotherapies.
Presents a brief overview of the many components of Adler’s Individual Psychology. Some of the topics addressed include social interest, finality, the inferiority feeling, organ inferiority, neurosis, upbringing, psychotherapy, and the three life tasks.
Frankl describes his experiences in a concentration camp which led to his development of logotherapy. He also provides a brief overview of logotherapy.
In this book, Anna Freud expands Freud’s psychoanalytic theory by applying ego development and the use of defense mechanisms to children.
Discusses psychoanalytic, Adlerian, existential, and Gestalt theory. Case studies and examples of interactions that occur in therapy are provided.
Rollo May integrates the theories of some of the original theorists in counselling. He also discusses the practical aspects of counselling.
Rogers presents his theory of non–directive psychotherapy.
A collection of chapters or essays written by Carl Rogers. Selections include information about non–directive and person–centered therapy, the therapeutic relationship, the person, and the helping profession.
Yalom provides information about the various themes and concepts that characterize existential psychotherapy. Life, death, anxiety, psychopathology, responsibility, willing, existential isolation, and meaninglessness are all discussed in relation to psychotherapy.

Unit 10: Behavioral, Cognitive, Systemic, Brief, and Crisis Theories of Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 10. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
Discusses the theoretical constructs, philosophy, and therapeutic practice of strategic and structural therapy. Also includes case illustrations of each type of therapy.
Presents an overview of reality therapy, behaviour therapy, cognitive–behaviour therapy, and family systems therapy.
The history, basic theoretical assumptions, applications, and case examples of various therapies are provided in this book. The theories described include rational emotive behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, family therapy, and reality therapy.
Discusses behavioral counseling, therapy, and modification; rational emotive behaviour therapy; reality therapy; and cognitive therapy. Case studies and examples of interactions that occur in therapy are provided.
Glasser describes reality therapy.
Informative page is concerned with the uses of biographical and autobiographical narratives as objects of study.
Discusses various types of crises and intervention strategies. Includes chapters about the various types of professionals who engage in crisis intervention.
Discusses the assumptions of solution–focused therapy, and describes how to provide solution–focused therapy.
Describes the use of narratives in therapy.

Unit 11: Groups in Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 11. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
This three-part video series focuses on teaching the viewer about several crucial aspects of group work: developmental stages, group leader professional development, and supervision of the group leader.
Discusses the rationale for using group counselling, examines the differing approaches of each author to group counselling, outlines practical suggestions on the skills needed for effective facilitation of groups, gives guidelines for forming a group, and provides solutions to common problems.
Outlines the basic elements of group process, deals with ethical and professional issues specific to group work, and presents an overview of the key concepts and techniques of 10 approaches to group counselling.
A brief description of the history and purpose of encounter groups is presented in this article.
Discusses ethical and professional issues for teaching principles and theories, leadership skills, and group counselling methods for effective group practice.

Gans, J., & Counselman, E. F.  (2000). Silence in group psychotherapy: A powerful communication. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 50(1), 71–86.

Explores the importance of silence developed or created within psychotherapy groups as an important method of communication.

An overview of group psychotherapy is provided at this site along with links to other online articles and resources.

Haley–Banez, L., & Walden, S.  (1999). Diversity in group work: Using optimal theory to understand group process and dynamics. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24(4), 405–422.

A non–Western, non–Eurocentric perspective is needed to understand culturally diverse groups. Argues that optimal theory provides the needed non–Western lens for a better understanding of group development in groups comprising culturally diverse members.

Addresses how facilitators and others help work groups become more effective.
[The author] is featured in this two-part video demonstrating ways to work with groups in late elementary/middle schools. Dr. Smead illustrates the different group skills that help create a successful group atmosphere. She also demonstrates group skills within a real group that is focused on anger management.
This article about T-groups or training groups presents the objectives of T-groups, a description of the method of T-groups, and possible problems stemming from T-groups.
Presents recent developments in the field of group psychotherapy, drawing on nearly a decade of new research, including the author’s own.

Unit 12: Career Counselling Over the Life Span


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 12. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.

Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development—1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.

Reviews the 1999 career literature that focused on issues related to the identification and implementation of career choices.

Blustein, D. (1997). A context-rich perspective on career exploration across life roles. The Career Development Quarterly, 45, 260-274.


Article may be ordered from the Athabasca University Library

Problems with trait and factor theories, lifespan theories, and social cognitive theories of career development are presented in this article. A discussion about career maturity and salience is also included.
This online manual provides information about planning your career. Topics covered are self-assessment, research, decision making, networks and contacts, work, and life/work planning.
This article discusses the work-meaning connection, job satisfaction, career happiness, and developments in career development theory.

Evans, K. M., & Rotter, J. C.  (2000). Multicultural family approaches to career counseling. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 8(1), 67–71.

Explores the literature for ways in which career counselling is approached from a multicultural family perspective.

Presents a career counselling process model designed to develop the capabilities of career counsellors.
Presents John L. Holland's RIASEC (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional) theory of careers and its successful application to vocational life.
Outlines selected Web-assisted counselling issues that are likely to affect counsellors over the next few years, and summarizes the career services currently available on the World Wide Web.

Lee, F. K., & Johnston, J. A.  (2001). Innovations in career counseling. Journal of Career Development, 27(3), 177-185.

Reviews a set of approaches for career counselling that should be effective for clients now and into the future.

Presents more than 200 strategies for career counselling that work in today's college environment.
This 29-minute video examines how young adults view the role of work in their lives. Major career development theories and the work stages of an ‘average’ young adult are highlighted. Changes in the employment environment and dual-career families are also discussed.
Various psychodynamic theories are related to career counselling in this article.
Presents every major career counselling theory and important application currently in use by practitioners.
Addresses trait and type theory, life span theory, special focus theories, and theoretical integration, with each theory providing a unique perspective on career development.

Unit 13: Marriage and Family Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 13. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
In this 55-minute video the main components of Murray Bowen’s theory are discussed. The dangers of narrowing one’s theoretical stance are explored, along with the need for clinicians to have systematic way of understanding the plethora of theories that have emerged in the recent past.
The home page for the Bowen Center for the Study of the Family includes descriptions and illustrations of the major tenets of Bowen family systems theory.
Suggests that a substantial body of empirical research has documented both the promise and the shortcomings of psychological interventions for preventing or reducing marital distress.
Discusses how research in the field of marriage and family therapy is unique because it involves multiple family members in therapy and highly sensitive information. To ensure that appropriate and accurate research is conducted, it is essential that ethical practices be followed. The American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Code of Ethics and general ethical standards for research are synthesized to form 10 basic guidelines.
Presents an integrated view of the field of marital and family therapy (MFT), or relationship therapy.
Introduces the three principal participants in the modern nuclear family; examines the dynamic quality of the family (from both a macro and a micro perspective); and considers the impact of the state on women's experience of family life.
Conjoint family therapy is the topic that Virginia Satir explores in this 58-minute video. Satir looks at the similarities and differences between this approach and other treatment options.
Revised and expanded discussion of a broad range of cultural influences encountered in clinical practice today.
Addresses the concerns of family psychology and systems theory to explore how systems therapists actually think and behave to bring about needed family change in the context of other systems.
Provides students and new therapists with the basic skills and tools necessary to become empathic, confident, and successful practitioners in the field of family therapy.
Examines current literature that emphasizes the importance of involving children in the therapeutic process. Reviews several approaches to including children in family therapy through the use of play.
This article discusses earlier stages of the family life cycle and provides examples of people who must overcome the obstacles presented in these stages. The unattached adult, the new couple, childbearing, the raising of young children, and the raising of adolescents are discussed in this part of the article.
In the second part of this two part article series, the stages of launching children and moving on in later life are discussed.

Unit 14: Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 14. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
This 34-minute video features Dr. Barkley and a close look at Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). This is an excellent informative resource for parents, teachers, and helping professionals who work with children. A 28-page manual accompanies the video.
This article describes bibliotherapy, discusses whether it is effective, and summarizes how and by whom it should be used.
This 4-part series of articles discusses the importance of career counseling in elementary, middle/junior high school, and high school aged children.
The main focus of this video is on how to diagnose Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and what are the best treatment methods. Dr. John Ratey and Dr. Ned Hallowell discuss these issues and profile an alternative education program for children with this disorder.
This 30-minute video explains how to teach the skills needed to resolve conflicts at the elementary school level. Two elementary school conflict-resolution programs are presented.
Discusses why peer victimization occurs, and provides recommendations to school counsellors about how to reduce it.
Several experts, Dr. Carl Bell, Joy Dryfoos, and Dr. Katherine Kauffer Christoffel, discuss the societal problems today that adversely affect children and adolescents.
Provides current information on ethics, professional standards, and laws pertinent to the delivery of school psychological services.
Examines how school counsellors can apply systems theory and social ecology to problem conceptualization and intervention planning.
Addresses what the author has learned from children through play therapy.
Gifted children and their families may be considered a population with unique needs. This article is a literature review.
This article provides the rationale for play therapy as well as descriptions of the appropriate toys, setting, and clients for play therapy.
Examines critical incidents and frequently occurring problems that arise in contemporary school counselling settings.

Unit 15: College Counselling and Student Life Services


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 15. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
Site provides a collection of articles discussing issues that college students frequently face. Some issues discussed are academic problems, social adjustment problems, loneliness, and abuse.
Explores issues of confidentiality relating to working with students in a university counselling service in relationship to academic, administrative, and managerial staff; medical and psychiatric services personnel; and other student support and welfare services run by university staff or the students union.

Ellingson, K. T., Kochenour, E. O., & Weitzman, L. M.  (1999). University counseling center consultation: Developing a faculty outreach program. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 51(1), 31–36.

Describes the development of a faculty outreach program created by a university counselling centre. It had the goals of strengthening the working relationship between the staff of the centre and academic faculty; of informing faculty of the centre’s services and their relationship to the academic mission; of providing coordination for departmental requests for outreach and consultation services; and of increasing centre staff involvement in outreach services to faculty.

Assesses the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and suicide ideation in a tertiary student population in Australia.
Presents case material based on many hours of counselling and psychotherapy conducted with college students.

Pace, D., & Quinn, L.  (2000). Empirical support of the overlap between career and mental health counseling of university students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 14(3), 41–50.

Reports occurrences of the overlap of career counselling and mental health counselling of university students at the counselling centre of a public university in the American Midwest.

Wyrostok, N. C., & Paulson, B. L.  (2000). Traditional healing practices among First Nations students. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 34(1), 14–24.

Traditional healing practices are an important aspect of the First Nations peoples’ conception of health and well being. The purpose of this study was to assess post–secondary First Nations students’ attitudes toward traditional Aboriginal healing practices.

Unit 16: Substance Abuse and Disability Counselling


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 16. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
AADAC's website provides information about various forms of addictions such as alcohol, drugs, gambling, and tobacco.
The home page of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) provides information about the tenets of their organization, the effects of alcoholism on family members, personal stories of people coming to grips with their alcoholism, and much more.
Clients who suffer from both an addiction and a mental illness have some unique diagnosis and treatment concerns. This video illustrates these concerns through a look at two clients who have a dual-diagnosis.
This three-part video series illustrates the multifaceted components of schizophrenia, depression, and addition. Real life patients are shown in this series to help enhance understanding of these disorders. The disorders are explained using the same process that is used to explain other mental conditions. (64-minute total running time.)

Collins, K. D.  (2000). Coordination of rehabilitation services in higher education for students with psychiatric disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 31(4), 36–39.

Describes the barriers experienced by young adults with psychiatric disabilities who are attempting post–secondary education, and discusses ways to navigate around these barriers.

Reviews major recent studies supporting the effectiveness of professional counselling, Alcoholics Anonymous, and specialty programs for treating alcohol and drug problems.
Research supporting the stages of change model is explored, and each stage is reviewed in detail. Provides practical suggestions for assisting clients within each stage.
This 28-minute video examines how gambling can sometimes be a harmless social event or can become an addiction. The development of a gambling addiction and treatment options are discussed by both a treatment specialist and a gambling addict.
Provides an overview of the issues encountered in working with people and addictions.
Women for Sobriety was created in response to the finding that male alcoholics were more likely to recover than female alcoholics. Therefore, Women for Sobriety is specifically focused on helping women recover from alcoholism. This site provides information about the organization and a collection of articles discussing women and alcoholism.

Unit 17: Mental Health and Community Counselling, and Private Practice


Supplementary Readings
These supplementary materials are presented for your interest, should you wish to follow up on the topic presented in Unit 17. However, you are not required to seek out these sources of information.
In this 26-minute video, two women tell their stories about struggling with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Information about these disorders is also presented.
Clients who suffer from both an addiction and a mental illness have some unique diagnosis and treatment concerns. This video illustrates these concerns through a look at two clients who have a dual-diagnosis.
This three-part video series illustrates the multifaceted components of schizophrenia, depression, and addition. Real life patients are shown in this series to help enhance understanding of these disorders. The disorders are explained using the same process that is used to explain other mental conditions. (64-minute total running time.)
This three-part video series illustrates the multifaceted components of schizophrenia, depression, and addition. Real life patients are shown in this series to help enhance understanding of these disorders. The disorders are explained using the same process that is used to explain other mental conditions. (64-minute total running time.)
Draws together a wide-ranging spectrum of historical sources, conceptual models, descriptions of clientele and settings, and views of the interventions of significance to mental health counsellors.