PSYC 323 (2004 Version): Developmental Psychology Report a Broken Link

PSYC 323 studies the basic concepts and mechanisms inherent in the process of human development from conception to adolescence. The nature and context of development as well as the research methods used to study human development are described. The course examines the biological, cognitive, social, emotional, and moral aspects of development through various theoretical models. The major emphasis is on normal growth and development.

Supplementary Readings

Chapter 1


The Nature of Development

Chapter 2


The Contexts of Development

Provides statistics for a number of topics such as poverty, homelessness, child abuse, daycare, school achievement, and teenage parenthood.

Discusses how there is little evidence to support the claim that out-of-home care negatively effects a child’s development in his/her first three years of life.

Article discusses some of the issues that children may encounter when their parents divorce.

Article summarizes some of the research that has been conducted concerning the effects of divorce on children.

Garbarino, J. (1989). Early investment in cognitive development as a strategy for reducing poverty. Early Education and Development, 1, 64-76.

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Chapter 3


Heredity and Prenatal Development
In the pages of the Association for Pre- & Perinatal Psychology and Health (APPPAH) "you'll be able to explore the many mental and emotional dimensions of pregnancy and birth in everything from scholarly articles to personal stories and late-breaking headlines.".

Article provides information about the short and long term effects of exposure to drugs, environmental factors that influence the effects of the drugs, and the educational implications prenatal exposure to drugs has for children.

Site provides an outline of the events that occur in fetal development. It includes images and an animation of a developing fetus.

This article discusses the development of a fetus' ability to move, taste, hear, see, learn, and be alert.

Site provides a week by week summary of the development of a fetus. It also includes pictures of a developing fetus.

This site offers a visual and written description of the abnormal and normal development of a human embryo from conception to birth.

Chapter 4


First Adaptations
Site provides some answers to questions about brain development in infants.
Addresses emotional development in infants, the effects of trauma and chronic stress on brain development, and techniques to encourage families to be supportive of their infant's brain development.

Chapter 5


Infant Cognitive Development
Article discusses some of the evidence for and against the claim that infants are capable of counting.
Colombo, J., & Frick, J.

(1999). Recent advances and issues in the study of preverbal intelligence. In M. Anderson et al. (Eds.), The development of intelligence: Studies in developmental psychology (pp. 43-71). Hove, England: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

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Article provides a brief biography of Jean Piaget and a summary of the four stages of his developmental theory.

A few examples of tests that can be used to study object permanence in infants are provided at this site.

Chapter 6


Infant Social and Emotional Development
Article describes how American parents and Kenyan Gusii parents treat their children differently and how this difference in treatment influences their children’s development.

Article discusses how in the past it has been believed that infants did not feel pain and how it has been discovered that infants actually do feel pain.

Article discusses how rats that were treated with care grew up to be friendlier, which may indicate that the environment can predispose a person to develop certain personality traits.
Lamb, M. E.

(1997). The development of father-infant relationships. In M. E. Lamb et al. (Eds.), The role of the father in child development (3rd ed., pp. 104-120). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Article discusses the development of language in infants.

Article discusses how parent-infant attachment influences the development of nonverbal, verbal, and written language.

Article discusses how children who are unloved and unwanted are more prone to become violent adults.
Article discusses the development of communication in infants.
Site provides a summary of children's self awareness and their ability to interact with others at various ages.

Chapter 7


Toddler Language and Thinking

Many studies have found that twins are delayed in language development. This article looks at possible sources of error in these studies that may have caused inaccurate conclusions to have been drawn.

Article discusses language acquisition in children. A discussion about the biology, course, and input of language acquisition is included.
Site provides a chart of typical milestones in the language development of children.

Article discusses how twins may have delayed language development. It also provides a list of milestones in language development.

Aimed at parents, this site describes the characteristics of typical language development of children at various ages from infancy to preschool.

Terrace, H. S.

(1985). In the beginning was the name. American Psychologist, 40 (9), 1011-1028.

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Site provides information about infants from the time they are born until the age of three. Some of the topics that are covered in the website are developmental milestones, brain development, and early literacy.

Chapter 8


Toddler Social and Emotional Development
Bridges, L. J., & Grolnick, W. S.

(1995). The development of emotional self-regulation in infancy and early childhood. In N. Eisenberg et al. (Eds.), Social development: Review of personality and social psychology, 15 (pp. 185-211). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

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LaFreniere, P. J., Provost, M. A., & Dubeau, D.

(1992). From an insecure base: Parent-child relations and internalizing behaviour in the pre-school. Early Development & Parenting, 1(3), 137-148.

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Site provides links to a number of articles concerning child abuse and neglect.

This article reviews existing research to answer the following question: "Do parents have any important long-term effects on the development of their child's personality?"

Chapter 9


Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
Provides an overview of development during middle childhood by discussing social, emotional, physical, and cognitive growth. References for further reading are provided.
Article discusses how early childhood behaviour, temper, gender differences, protective factors, and family relationships predict substance abuse later in life.

This website contains links to a number of articles that address infants; toddlers; school-age children; and intellectual, language, emotional, social and brain development.

Chapter 10


Social and Emotional Development in Early Childhood

Discusses how there is little evidence to support the claim that out-of-home care negatively affects a child’s development in his/her first three years of life.

Article discusses how a child's sense of morality may first be demonstrated. Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories of moral development are also mentioned.

Article discusses the components of moral development and functioning in children. It also addresses how children can be influenced by various characteristics of their parents.
Article discusses the psychological effects of orphanage care on children, maternal deprivation, the comparison of orphans to other children, and criticisms of reports about the effects of orphanage care.
Article discusses the role of creative play in a child's development.

Chapter 11


Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
This report discusses many issues related to cultural diversity and early education such as cultural diversity at home, the unique characteristics the children bring to school, and the implications for early education.

Article discusses how a child’s understanding of math concepts may be negatively influenced by the words and symbols that are used to represent numbers.

Richardson, K.

(1995). The development of intelligence. In V. Lee, P. Das Gupta, et al. (Eds.), Children's cognitive and language development: Child development, 3 (pp. 149-187). Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.

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Schneider, W.

(1999). The development of metamemory in children. In D. Gopher, A. Koriat, et al. (Eds.), Attention and performance XVII: Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 487-514). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

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This article written by Howard Gardner discusses the problems of intelligence tests and the controversies associated with the topic of intelligence.

Chapter 12


Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Article discusses how peer rejected children may turn to aggression. It also suggests how this problem can be corrected.

Article discusses the problems that children without friends experience, the causes of peer rejection, and ways to improve social skills.

Article discusses some of the issues that children may encounter when their parents divorce.

Article summarizes some of the research that has been conducted concerning the effects of divorce on children.

Article discusses the problem of partner violence, how children may experience it, and the effects it has on children.

"This short essay discusses the causes, consequences, and solutions to the many social, psychological, and family problems brought about by sibling rivalry."

Chapter 13


Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Students at Pennsylvania University created this thorough web site with dozens of links and references to information about adolescent development. Topics range from biological to social to family and peer influences.

Article discusses physical, cognitive, and psycho-social development in adolescents.
Eckensberger, L. H., & Zimba, R. F.

(1997). The development of moral judgment. In J. W. Berry, P. R. Dasen, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, Vol. 2: Basic processes and human development (2nd ed.), (pp. 299-338). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

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Kohlberg, L.

(1968). The child as moral philosopher. Psychology Today, 2(4), September, 25-30.

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Describes Kohlberg's theory of moral development and compares it to Piaget's ideas. It also goes into detail about the concept of stages of development, discusses the relationship between moral thought and moral behavior, relates moral thought to other types of cognition, and discusses implications for education. It concludes with a discussion about the limitations of Kohlberg's theory, including Gilligan's ideas.

In recent years, more girls have been experiencing puberty. This article discusses some possible explanations, as well as the implications that early puberty has for young girls.

Okonkwo, R. U. N.

(1997). Moral development and culture in Kohlberg's theory: A Nigerian (Igbo) evidence. Ife Psychologia: an International Journal, 5(2), 117-128.

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Walker, L. J., Pitts, R. C., Hennig, K. H., & Matsuba, M. K.

(1999). Reasoning about morality and real-life moral problems. In M. Killen, Hart, D., et al. (Eds.), Morality in everyday life: Developmental perspectives (pp. 371-407). New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Chapter 14


Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence

Article provides some facts about peer pressure.

Offers a number of links to sites related to adolescence. The Mental Health Issues link offers 18 topics including suicide, sexual abuse, adolescent development, eating disorders, grieving, and many others.

Article discusses how "falling in love makes adolescents more depressed, and more prone to delinquency and alcohol abuse than they would have been if they'd avoided romance.".
Article discusses some of the issues that girls are faced with during puberty such as self-esteem, health, and weight issues.

This article discusses some of the challenges that multiracial youth face in their process of forming an identity.

Music plays an influential role in adolescent's lives. This article looks at how music influences teens' behaviours.

Chapter 15


Developmental Psychopathology

Site discusses adolescent depression by answering some common questions and issues surrounding depression in adolescents.

Information, links, and support services for people with eating disorders. It is written by a nonprofit organization in Kingston, Ontario.

Maintained by the National Institute of Mental Health (a U.S. government agency), this site offers basic information about anxiety disorders including panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

Site provides information about the symptoms and causes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, other disabilities that may accompany the disorder, and how it is identified and treated.

Site provides information about autism, its causes, its diagnosis, and what can be done to help those who have it.

Article discusses the life of an autistic child and describes the sensory and perceptual problems he/she may encounter.

Article discusses why it is sometimes difficult to diagnose depression in children and adolescents.

Article discusses the issues that arise when adolescents have eating disorders.

Site discusses the major characteristics of autism, subgroups of autism, related disorders, the causes of autism, physical abnormalities, sensory impairments, cognition, and interventions.