HIST 404: Historical Foundations of Modern Science Report a Broken Link

Unit 1: What is Science?

Supplementary Readings
Alioto, Anthony M. A History of Western Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987.
Ashman, Keith M., and Philip S. Barringer, eds. After the Science Wars. London: Routledge, 2001.
Asimov, Isaac. The History of Physics. New York: Walker, 1984.
Barnes, Barry. Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Analysis. Athlone, 2002.
Bernal, J. D. The Extension of Man: A History of Physics Before 1900. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1972.
________. Science in History. London: Watts, 1954.
Bloor, David. Knowledge and Social Imagery. New York: Routledge, 1976.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Discoverers: A History of Man’s Search to Know His World and Himself. New York: Random House, 1983.
Brock, William H. The Norton History of Chemistry. New York: Norton, 1992.
Bronowski, Jacob. The Ascent of Man. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.
Brown, James R. Who Rules in Science? An Opinionated Guide to the Wars. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2001.
Butterfield, Herbert. The Origins of Modern Science. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1957.
Bynum, W. F., et. al. eds. Dictionary of the History of Science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1981.
Cajori, Florian. A History of Mathematics. New York: Chelsa, 1991.
Castiglioni, Arturo. A History of Medicine. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1948.
Chalmers, Alan Francis. What is this Thing Called Science?: An Assessment of the Nature and Status of Science and Its Methods. United Kingdom: Open University P, 1978.
Cohen, I. Bernard. Revolution in Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985.
Combie, Alistair. Medieval and Modern Science. 2 Volumes. New York: Doubleday, 1959.
Debus, Allen G., ed. World Who’s Who in Science: A Biographical Dictionary of Notable Scientists from Antiquity to the Present. Chicago: Marquis, 1968.
Dreyer, J.L.E. A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler. New York: Dover, 1953.
Duke, Martin. The Development of Medical Techniques and Treatments: From Leeches to Heart Surgery. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, 1990.
Forbes, R.J., and E.J. Dijksterhuis. A History of Science and Technology. 2 Volumes. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963.
Gillispie, Charles Coulston, ed. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Scribner, 1970.
Gjertsen, Derek. The Classics of Science: A Study of Twelve Enduring Scientific Works. New York: Barber, 1984.
Golinski, Jan. Making Natural Knowledge: Constructivism and the History of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Gross, Paul R., and Norman Levitt. Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 1994.
Hall, Thomas S. Ideas of Life and Matter: Studies in the History of General Physiology, 600 B.C. to 1900 A.D. 2 Volumes. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1969.
Heilbron, John L. The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Oxford UP, 2003.
Hellemans, Alexander, and Bryan Bunch. Timetables of Science: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in the History of Science. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.
The History of Science and Technology: A Narrative Chronology. 2 Volumes. New York: Facts on File, 1988.
Holton, Gerald. Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1988.
Holton, Gerald. The Scientific Imagination: Case Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1978.
Jeans, Sir James. The Growth of Physical Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1961.
Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times. New York: Oxford UP, 1972.
________. Mathematics in Western Culture. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1953.
Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1962.
Latour, Bruno. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1987.
________. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1993.
MacLachlan, James. Children of Prometheus: A History of Science and Technology. Toronto: Wall and Thompson, 1989.
Mason, Stephen F. A History of the Sciences. New York: Collier, 1967.
Merton, Robert K. Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England. New York: H. Fertig, 1970.
________. The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1973.
Nordenskiold, Erik. The History of Biology. New York: Knopf, 1928.
North, John David. The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology. New York: Norton, 1995.
Parsons, Keith, ed. The Science Wars: Debating Scientific Knowledge and Technology. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2003.
Partington, J. R. A History of Chemistry. 4 Volumes. London: Macmillan, 1964.
Pledge, H. T. Science Since 1500. New York: Harper and Row, 1959.
Popper, Karl Raimund. The Poverty of Historicism. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.
Popper, Karl Raimund. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Routledge, 2002.
Ravetz, Jerome R. Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979.
Rousseau, George, and Roy Porter, eds. The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
Sarton, George. A History of Science. 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1952–1959.
________. Introduction to the History of Science. 3 Volumes. Huntington, NY: Krieger, 1975.
Schaffer, Simon, and Steven Shapin. Leviathan and the Air Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life: Including a Translation of Thomas Hobbes, Dialogus physicus de natura aeris. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1985.
Singer, Charles. A Short History of Anatomy and Physiology from the Greeks to Harvey. New York: Dover, 1959.
________. A Short History of Scientific Ideas to 1900. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1959.
Sokal, Alan D. “Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity,” Social Text 46-47 (1996): 217–52.
________. “A Physicist Experiments with Cultural Studies.” Lingua Franca 4 (1996): 62–4.
“Sokal Affair.” Wikipedia.
Thorndike, Lynn. A History of Magic and Experimental Science. 8 Volumes. New York: Macmillan and Columbia UP, 1929–1934.

Unit 2: The Origins of Natural Philosophy or Why the Greeks?

Supplementary Readings
Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Roots of Classical Civilization. 3 Vols. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1987–2006.
Byrne, Patrick. Analysis and Science in Aristotle. Albany: State U of New York P, 1997.
Clagett, Marshall. Greek Science in Antiquity. New York: Collier, 1963.
Farrington, Benjamin. Greek Science. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1953.
________. Greek Science: Its Meaning for Us. Nottingham: Spokesman, 1980.
Gay, Kathlyn. Science in Ancient Greece. New York: F. Watts, 1988.
Gillings, Richard J. Mathematics in the Time of the Pharohs. New York: Dover, 1982.
Irby-Massie, Georgia L., and Paul T. Keyser, eds. Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2002.
Lefkowitz, Mary. Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. New York: Basic Books, 1996.
________. History Lesson: A Race Odyssey. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2008.
Lefowitz, Mary, and Guy MacLean Rogers. Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1996.
Lloyd, G. E. R. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1968.
________. Early Greek Science: Thales to Aristotle. New York: Norton, 1970.
________. Greek Science after Aristotle. London: Chatto and Windus, 1973.
________. Magic, Reason, and Experience: Studies in the Origin and Development of Greek Science. New York: Cambridge UP, 1979.
Lloyd, G. E. R., and Nathan Sivin. The Way and the Word: Science and Medicine in Early China and Greece. New Haven: Yale UP, 2002.
Neugebauer, O. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. New York: Dover, 1969.
Rihll, T. E. Greek Science. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999.
Sambursky, S. The Physical World of the Greeks. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956.
Sigerist, Henry E. A History of Medicine, 2 Vols. New York: Oxford UP, 1951–1961.
Solmsen, Frederick. Aristotle’s System of the Physical World. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1960.
Tuplin, C. J., and T. E. Rihll, eds. Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002.

Unit 3: Science in the Roman and Islamic Worlds and the Twelfth-Century Revival in Western Europe

Supplementary Readings
Africa, Thomas W. Science and the State in Greece and Rome. New York: Wiley, 1968.
Albertus Magnus. The Book of Secrets of Albertus Magnus of the Virtues of Herbs, Stones and Certain Beasts, also A Book of the Marvels of the World. Eds. Michael R. Best and Frank H. Brightman. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.
Baker, Osman. The History and Philosophy of Islamic Science. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1999.
Barton, Tamsyn. Power and Knowledge: Astrology, Physiognomics, and Medicine under the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1994.
Beagon, Mary. Roman Nature: The Thought of Pliny the Elder. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.
Clagett, Marshall. The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1959.
________. Archimedes in the Middle Ages. 5 Volumes. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1964–1984.
Crombie, Alistair. Robert Grossetest and the Origins of Experimental Science, 1100–1700. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.
________. The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1959.
________. Medieval and Early Modern Science. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1967.
________. Augustine to Galileo. London: Heinemann, 1979.
Deen,  S. M. Science under Islam: Rise, Decline and Revival. London: Lulu, 2007.
Dunlop, D. M. Arabic Science in the West. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society, 1958.
Freeman, Phillip. The Philosopher and the Druids: A Journey among the Ancient Celts. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.
French, Roger, and Frank Greenaway, eds. Science in the Early Roman Empire: Pliny the Elder, His Sources and His Influence. London: Croom Helm, 1986.
Grant, Edward, ed. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1974.
________. Physical Science in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977.
________. Studies in Medieval Science and Natural Philosophy. London: Variorum Reprints, 1981.
________. The Foundation of Modern Science in the Middle Ages, Their Religious, Institutional and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996.
________. Planets, Stars and Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos 1200–1687. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.
Haskins, Charles Homer. Studies in the History of Medieval Science. New York: Ungar, 1924.
Hogendijk, J. P. The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 2003.
Holmyard, E.J. Alchemy. Mineola: Dover, 1990.
Huff, Toby. The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993.
Iqbal, Muzaffar. Science and Islam. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007.
Kibre, Pearl. Studies in Medieval Science: Alchemy, Astrology, Mathematics, and Medicine. London: Hambledon, 1984.
Kidd, I. G., and Ludwig Edelstein. Posidonius. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1972.
________. Posidonius. I, The Fragments. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1972.
________. Posidonius The Commentary (II)—Fragments 150–293. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.
________. Posidonius III—The Translations of the Fragments. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.
Lindberg, David C., ed. Science in the Middle Ages. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1978.
________. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1992.
Long, Pamela O., ed. Science and Technology in Medieval Society. New York: Academy of Science, 1985.
Marrone, Steven P. William of Auvergne and Robert Grosseteste: New Ideas of Truth in the Early Thirteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1983.
Moody, Ernest A. Studies in Medieval Philosophy, Science and Logic. Berkeley: U of California P, 1975.
Murdoch, John E. Antiquity and the Middle Ages. New York: Scribner, 1984.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Islamic Science: An Illustrated Study. Great Britain: World of Islam Festival Publishing, 1976.
________. Science and Civilization in Islam. Cambridge, MA: Islamic Texts Society, 1987.
Pederson, Olaf. Early Physics and Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993.
Peters, F. E. Aristotle and the Arabs: The Aristotelian Tradition in Islam. New York: New York UP, 1968.
Pliny the Elder. The Natural History. Ed. John Bostock.
Qadir, C. A. Philosophy and Science in the Islamic World. London: Routledge, 1990.
Rosenthal, Franz. Science and Medicine in Islam: A Collection of Essays. Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower, 1990.
Saliba, George. Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 2007.
Stahl, William Harris. Roman Science: Origins, Development, and Influence to the Later Middle Ages. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1962.

Unit 4: Science in the Renaissance

Required Readings
Assignment 1 - Part A
Alternative link
Assignment 1 - Part B
Source: Grant, Edward, ed. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1974.
Supplementary Readings
Armitage, Angus. The World of Copernicus. Wakefield: E.P. Publishing, 1972.
Blair, Ann. The Theater of Nature: Jean Bodin and Renaissance Science. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1997.
Boas, Marie. The Scientific Renaissance. New York: Harper, 1966.
Bono, James J. The Word of God and the Languages of Man: Interpreting Nature in Early Modern Science and Medicine. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1995.
Cormack, Lesley B. Charting an Empire: Geography at the English Universities, 1580–1620. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.
Daston, Lorraine. Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750. New York: Zone Books, 1998.
Dear, Peter. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500–1700. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001.
Debus, Allen G. Man and Nature in the Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1978.
Drake, Stillman. Galileo: Pioneer Scientist. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1990.
Feingold, Mordechai. The Mathematicians Apprenticeship: Science, Universities, and Society in England, 1560–1640. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1984.
Field, J. V., and Frank James, eds. Renaissance and Revolution: Humanists, Scholars, Craftsmen, and Natural Philosophers in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993.
Galilei, Galileo. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems—Ptolemaic and Copernican. Trans. Stillman Drake. Berkeley: U of California P, 1967.
________. Two New Sciences, Including Centers of Gravity and Force of Percussion. Trans. Stillman Drake. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1974.
Grafton, Anthony, with April Shelfor and Nancy Siraisi. New Worlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1992.
Koyre, Alexandre. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1957.
Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1957.
Margolis, Howard. It Started with Copernicus: How Turning the World Inside Out Led to the Scientific Revolution. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1962.
Moran, Bruce T., ed. Patronage and Institutions: Science, Technology, and Medicine at the European Court, 1500–1750. Rochester: Boydell, 1991.
Rose, Paul L. The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics. Geneva: Librarie Droz, 1975.
Rossi, Paolo. Philosophy, Technology, and the Arts in the Early Modern Era. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1968.
Sarton, George. Six Wings: Men of Science in the Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1957.
Taylor, E. R. G. The Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England, 1485–1714. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1968.
Westman, Robert S., ed. The Copernican Achievement. Berkeley: U of California P, 1975.
Wightman, W. P. D. Science and the Renaissance, 2 Vols. London: Oliver and Boyd, 1962.
________. Science in Renaissance Society. London: Hutchinson, 1972.
Yates, Frances. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. New York: Random House, 1964.

Unit 5: The Scientific Revolution

Supplementary Readings
Anderson, Fulton H. Francis Bacon: His Career and Thought. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.
Andrade, E. N. da Costa. Sir Isaac Newton. London: Collins, 1954.
Bonelli, M. L. R., and William R. Shea, eds. Reason, Experiment and Mysticism in the Scientific Revolution. New York: Science History Publications, 1975.
Boyer, Carl B. The History of the Calculus and Its Conceptual Development. New York: Dover, 1959.
Bullough, Vern L., ed. The Scientific Revolution. New York: R. E. Krieger Publishing, 1978.
Burke, J. G. The Uses of Science in the Age of Newton. Berkeley: U of California P, 1983.
Burtt, Edwin A. The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1951.
Casper, Max. Kepler. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1959.
Christianson, Gale E. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton and His Times. New York: The Free Press, 1984.
Cohen, I. Bernard. The Newtonian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
________. From Leonardo to Lavoisier, 1450–1800. New York: Scribner, 1980.
________. Birth of a New Physics. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1985.
Cohen, I. Bernard, and George E. Smith, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.
Dear, Peter Robert. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500–1700. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2001.
Debus, Allen G. The English Paracelsians. New York: Watts, 1966.
________. The Chemical Philosophy: Paracelsian Science and Medicine in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 2 Volumes. New York: Science History Publications, 1977.
De Santillana, Giorgio. The Crime of Galileo. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1976.
Dijksterhuis, E. J. The Mechanization of the World Picture: Pythagorus to Newton. Trans. C. Dikshoorn. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1986.
Dobbs, Betty J. T. The Foundations of Newton’s Alchemy or “The Hunting of the Green Lyon.” Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975.
Drake, Stillman. Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1978.
________. Galileo. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1980.
Finocchiaro, Maurice. Galileo and the Art of Reasoning. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1980.
Geymonat, Ludovico. Galileo Galilei: A Biography and Inquiry into His Philosophy of Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.
Gillispie, C. C. The Edge of Objectivity. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1960.
Golino, Carno L. Galileo Reappraised. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.
Hall, A. Rupert. From Galileo to Newton. New York: Dover, 1981.
________. The Revolution in Science, 1500–1750. London: Longman, 1983.
Herivel, John. The Background to Newton’s “Principia”: A Study of Newton’s Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–1684. Oxford: Clarendon, 1965.
Hunter, Lynette, and Sarah Hutton, eds. Women, Science and Medicine 1500–1700: Mothers and Sisters of the Royal Society. Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton, 1997.
Jacob, James R. The Scientific Revolution: Aspirations and Achievements, 1500–1700. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1998.
Jardine, Lisa. Ingenious Pursuits: Building the Scientific Revolution. New York: Nan A. Talese, 1999.
Kearney, Hugh. Science and Change, 1500–1700. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.
Kline, Morris. Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty. New York: Oxford UP, 1980.
Koestler, Arthur. The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man’s Changing Vision of the Universe. New York: Macmillan, 1959.
Koyre, Alexandre. The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus, Kepler, Borelli. New York: Dover, 1992.
________. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1968.
________. Galileo Studies. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1978.
________. Metaphysics and Measurement: Essays in the Scientific Revolution. Yverdon, Switzerland: Gordon and Breach, 1992.
Lindberg, David C., and Robert S. Westman, eds. Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.
Mandrou, Robert. From Humanism to Science, 1480–1700. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
Manuel, Frank E. A Portrait of Isaac Newton. New York: Da Capo, 1990.
McMullin, Ernan, ed. Galileo: Man of Science. New York: Basic Books, 1967.
Middleton, W. E. K. The Scientific Revolution. Toronto: CBC, 1963.
More, L. T. Isaac Newton: A Biography. New York: Dover, 1962.
Newton, Isaac. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Trans. Alexandre Koyre and I. Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972.
Osler, Margaret J. Rethinking the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.
Pagel, Walter. William Harvey’s Biological Ideas: Selected Aspects and Historical Background. Basel: Karger, 1967.
________. Joan Baptista Van Helmont: Reformer of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982.
________. From Paracelsus to Van Helmont: Studies in Renaissance Medicine and Science. London: Variorum, 1986.
Popkin, Richard H. The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes. Berkeley: U of California P, 1979.
Quinton, Anthony. Francis Bacon. New York: Hill and Wang, 1980.
Redondi, Pietro. Galileo: Heretic. Trans. Raymond Rosenthal. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987.
Rossi, Paolo. Francis Bacon: From Magic to Science. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1968.
Sabra, A. I. Theories of Light: From Descartes to Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981.
Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Shea, William R. Galileo’s Intellectual Revolution: The Middle Period, 1610–1632. Canton, MA: Watson, 1977.
Toulmin, Stephen, and June Goodfield. The Fabric of the Heavens. New York: Harper and Row, 1961.
Wallace, William A. Galileo and His Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo’s Science. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1984.
Westfall, Richard S. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-century England. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1958.
________. The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977.
________. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
________. Essays on the Trial of Galileo. Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory, 1990.

Unit 6: Science and the Enlightenment

Supplementary Readings
Bossi, M. and S. Poggi, eds. Romanticism in Science: Science in Europe, 1790–1840. Boston: Kluwer, 1994.
Cohen, I. Bernard. Franklin and Newton. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1956.
Cormack, Lesley B. Charting an Empire: Geography at the English Universities, 1580–1620. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.
Cunningham, A., and N. Jardine, eds. Romanticism and the Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.
Diderot, Denis. Diderot Pictorial Encyclopedia of Trades and Industry: Manufacturing and the Technical Arts in Plates, Selected from l’Encyclopédie; ou, Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, of Denis Diderot. New York: Dover Publications, 1959.
________. Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Romance Languages and Literature, 2006.
Fox, Christopher, Roy Porter, and Robert Wokler, eds. Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains. Berkeley: U of California P, 1995.
Gillespie, Charles C. Science and Polity in France at the End of the Old Regime. Princeton NJ: Princeton UP, 1980.
Hahn, Roger. The Anatomy of a Scientific Institution: The Paris Academy of Sciences, 1666–1803. Berkeley: U of California P, 1971.
Hankins, Thomas L. Science and the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985.
________. Jean d’Alembert: Science and the Enlightenment. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1990.
Holbach, Paul Henri Thiry, baron d’. The System of Nature: Or, Laws of the Moral and Physical World. Trans. H. D. Robinson. New York: Burt Franklin, 1970.
Holmes, Frederic Lawrence. Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life. Madison: U  of Wisconsin P, 1985.
Kors, Alan. D’Holbach’s Coterie: An Enlightenment Paris. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1976.
Lavoisier, Antoine. Elements of Chemistry. Trans. Robert Kerr. New York: Dover Publications, 1965.
McClellan, James E. Science Reorganized: Scientific Societies in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Columbia UP, 1985.
Poirer, Jean-Pierre. Lavoisier, Chemist, Biologist, Economist. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1996.
Rousseau, G. S., and Roy Porter, eds. The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Eighteenth Century Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
Schiebinger, Londa L. Nature’s Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Boston: Beacon, 1993.
Schofield, Robert. The Lunar Society of Birmingham: A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in Eighteenth Century England. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1963.
Wade, Ira O. Voltaire and Madame du Châtelet: An Essay on the Intellectual Activity at Cirey. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1941.
________. The Intellectual Development of Voltaire. 2 Volumes. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1969.
Wilson, Arthur M. Diderot. New York: Oxford UP, 1972.
Wolf, Abraham. A History of Science Technology, and Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. 2 Volumes. New York: Macmillan, 1939.
Yeo, Richard R. Encyclopaedic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

Unit 7: Science and the Age of Empire

Required Readings
Assignment 2 - Topic A
Assignment 2 - Topic B
Discourse on the Method by René Descartes.
Supplementary Readings
Bannister, Robert C. Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1989.
Barber, L. The Heyday of Natural History, 1820–1870. London: Cape, 1980.
Barthelemy-Madaule, Madeleine. Lamarck the Mythical Precursor: A Study of the Relations Between Science and Ideology. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1982.
Bowler, Peter J. Fossils and Progress: Paleontology and the Idea of Progressive Evolution in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Science History Publications, 1976.
________. Evolution: The History of an Idea. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984.
________. Theories of Human Evolution: A Century of Debate, 1844–1944. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986.
________. The Mendelian Revolution: The Emergence of Hereditarian Concepts in Modern Science and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1989.
________. Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.
________. Life’s Splendid Drama: Evolutionary Biology and the Reconstruction of Life’s Ancestry, 1860–1940. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Brent, Peter. Charles Darwin: A Man of Enlarged Curiosity. New York: Norton, 1981.
Brooks, J. L. Just Before the Origin: Alfred Russel Wallace’s Theory of Evolution. New York: Columbia UP, 1984.
Browne, E. Janet. Charles Darwin: Vol. 1, Voyaging. London: Jonathan Cape, 1995.
________. Charles Darwin: Vol. 2, the Power of Place. London: Jonathan Cape, 2002.
Burchfield, J. D. Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1990.
Coleman, William. Biology in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge UP, 1977.
Corsi, P. The Age of Lamarck: Evolutionary Theories in France, 1790–1834. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988.
Crais, Clifton and Pamela Scully. Sara Baartman and the Hottentot Venus: A Ghost Story and a Biography. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2008.
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: J. Murray, 1860.
DeBeer, Sir Gavin. Charles Darwin: Evolution by Natural Selection. New York: Nelson, 1963.
Desmond, Adrian. Archetypes and Ancestors: Palaeontology in Victorian London, 1850–1875. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1984.
Desmond, Adrian, and James Moore. Darwin. New York: Warner, 1992.
Eiseley, Loren. Darwin’s Century: Evolution and the Men Who Discovered It. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958.
Garfield, Simon. Mauve: How One Man Invented a Color that Changed the World. New York: Norton, 2001.
Geison, Gerald L. The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1995.
Ghiselin, Michael T. The Triumph of the Darwinian Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.
Gillespie, Charles C. Genesis and Geology: A Study in the Relations of Scientific Thought, Natural Theology, and Social Opinion in Great Britain, 1790–1850. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1951.
Glass, Bentley, Owsei Temkin, and William L. Straus, Jr., eds. Forerunners of Darwin, 1745–1859. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1968.
Gould, Stephen J. Ever Since Darwin. New York: Norton, 1977.
________. “The Hottentot Venus.” The Flamingo’s Smile: Reflections in Natural History. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1985: 291–305.
________. Time’s Arrow, Time’s Cycle: Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1987.
Greene, John C. The Death of Adam. Ames: Iowa State UP, 1959.
Greene, Mott T. Geology in the Nineteenth Century: Changing Views of a Changing World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1982.
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. New York: Norton, 1968.
Holmes, Rachel. The Hottentot Venus. Bloomsbury: Random House, 2006.
Hull, D. L. Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983.
Irvine, William. Apes, Angels, and Victorians: Darwin, Huxley, and Evolution. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1955.
Lyell, Sir Charles. Principles of Geology. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1990.
Mayr, Ernst. The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1982.
Nye, Mary Jo. Before Big Science: The Pursuit of Modern Chemistry and Physics, 1800–1940. New York: Twayne, 1996.
Ospovat, D. The Development of Darwin’s Theory: Natural History, Natural Theology, and Natural Selection, 1838–1859. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981.
Paul, Harry W. From Knowledge to Power: The Rise of the Science Empire in France, 1860–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985.
Porter, Roy. The Making of Geology: Earth Science in Britain, 1660–1815. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
Ruse, Michael. The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1979.
Secord, J. Controversy in Victorian Geology: The Cambrian-Silurian Dispute. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1986.
Strathern, Paul. Mendeleyev’s Dream: The Quest for the Elements. New York: St. Martins, 2000.
Vorzimmer, P. J. Charles Darwin, the Years of Controversy: The “Origin of Species” and Its Critics, 1859–82. London: U of London P, 1972.
Wilson, John. The Forgotten Naturalist: In Search of Alfred Russel Wallace. Kew: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2000.
Wilson, L. G. Charles Lyell, the Years to 1841: The Revolution in Geology. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1970.
Winsor, M. P. Starfish, Jellyfish, and the Order of Life: Issues of Nineteenth-Century Science. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1976.

Unit 8: The End of Certainty: Science, War, and the Onset of the Atomic Age

Supplementary Readings
Aris, Rutherford, et. al., eds. Springs of Scientific Creativity: Essays on Founders of Modern Science. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1983.
Asimov, Isaac. The History of Physics. New York: Walker, 1984.
Bellone, Enrico. A World on Paper: Studies in the Second Scientific Revolution. Cambridge: MIT P, 1980.
Brennan, Richard P. Heisenberg Probably Slept Here: The Lives, Times, and Ideas of the Great Physicists of the 20th Century. New York: Wiley, 1997.
Broda, Engelbert. Ludwig Boltzmann: Man, Physicist, Philosopher. Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow, 1983.
Brush, Stephen G. The Temperature of History: Phases of Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Burt Franklin, 1978.
Bunge, Mario, and William R. Shea, eds. Rutherford and Physics at the Turn of the Century. New York: Science History Publications, 1979.
Cantor, G. N., and M. J. S. Hodge. Conceptions of Ether: Studies in the History of Ether Theories. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981.
Cassidy, David Charles. Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg. New York: Freeman, 1992.
Clark, Ronald. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: Avon Books, 1971.
Einstein, Albert, and Leopold Infeld. The Evolution of Physics: From Early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta. 2nd ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.
Galison, Peter, and Bruce Hevly, eds. Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1992.
Goldman, M. The Demon in the Aether: The Story of James Clerk Maxwell, the Father of Modern Science. Edinburgh: Adam Hilger, 1983.
Gray, Tony. Champions of Peace: The Story of Alfred Nobel, the Peace Prize and the Laureates. New York: Paddington, 1976.
Haber, L. F. The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1986.
Harman, Peter M. Energy, Force, and Matter: The Conceptual Development of Nineteenth-Century Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982.
________. Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy: The Problem of Substance in Classical Physics. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.
________. The Natural Philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Henig, Robin Marantz. The Monk in the Garden: The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics. Boston: Mariner Books, 2001.
Hughes, Jeff. The Manhattan Project: Big Science and the Atom Bomb. Cambridge: Icon Books, 2002.
Isaacson, Walter. Einstein: His Life and Universe. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Jones, R. V. Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939–1945. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1978.
Jones, Sheilla. The Quantum Ten. Markham, ON: Thomas Allen, 2008.
Jungnickel, Christa, and Russell McCormmach. Intellectual Mastery of Nature: Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1986.
Knight, David. The Age of Science: The Scientific World-view in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Blackwell, 1986.
Kohler, Robert E. Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991.
Lindee, M. Susan. Suffering Made Real: American Science and the Survivors at Hiroshima. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1994.
Maddox, Robert James. Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision Fifty Years Later. Columbia: U of Missouri P, 1995.
Mahon, Basil. The Man Who Changed Everything—the Life of James Clerk Maxwell. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003.
McCormmach, Russell. Night Thoughts of a Classical Physicist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1982.
Merz, John Theodore. A History of European Scientific Thought in the Nineteenth Century. 4 Volumes. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1976.
Neffe, Jürgen. Einstein: A Biography. Trans. Shelly Frisch. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2007.
Pasachoff, Naomi E. Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.
Russell, Edmund. War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War I to Silent Spring. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.
Sime, Ruth Lewin. Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics. Berkeley, CA: U of California P, 1996.
Tolstoy, Ivan. James Clerk Maxwell: A Biography. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1982.
Weart, Spencer R. Scientists in Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1979.
Whittaker, Edmund T. A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity. 2 Volumes. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1987.
Williams, L. Pearce. Michael Faraday: A Biography. New York: Da Capo, 1987.
Wilson, David. Rutherford: Simple Genius. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1983.

Unit 9: Discovering DNA

Supplementary Readings
Calladine, Chris R., et. al. Understanding DNA: The Molecule and How It Works. 3rd ed. Boston: Elsevier Academic, 2004.
Clayton, Julie, and Carina Dennis, eds. 50 Years of DNA. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1996.
Maddox, Brenda. Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.
McElheny, Victor K. Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution. New York: Perseus, 2004.
Olby, Robert C. The Path to the Double Helix: The Discovery of DNA. London: Macmillan, 1974.
________. Fontana History of Biology. New York: Fontana Books, 2002.
Ridley, Matt. Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.
Rose, Steven. The Chemistry of Life. 4th ed. London: Penguin Press Science, 1999.
Sayre, Anne. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: Norton, 1975.
Watson, James D., and Francis H. C. Crick. “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.” Nature 171 (1953): 737–38.
Watson, James D. Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007.

Unit 10: Hypatia’s Heritage: Women’s Role in Science

Required Readings
Source: Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980.
Assignment 3 - Topic A
Supplementary Readings
Abir-Am, Pnina, and Dorinda Outram, eds. Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 1789–1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1987.
Bourdillon, Hilary. Women as Healers: A History of Women in Science from Antiquity to the Late Nineteenth Century. London: The Women’s Press, 1986.
Byers, Nina, and Gary Williams, eds. Out of the Shadows: Contributions of Twentieth-Century Women to Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Donnison, Jean. Midwives and Medical Men. New York: Schocken, 1977.
Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Deidre English. Witches, Midwives, and Nurses: A History of Women Healers. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1973.
Ehrman, Esther. Madame du Châtelet: Scientist, Philosopher and Feminist of the Enlightenment. New York: Berg, 1987.
Etzkowitz, Henry, Carol Kemelgor, and Brian Uzzi. Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.
Fara, Patricia. Pandora’s Breeches: Women, Science and Power in the Enlightenment. London: Pimlico, 2004.
Gates, Barbara T. Kindred Nature: Victorian and Edwardian Women Embrace the Living World. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1986.
Grant, Douglas. Margaret the First: A Biography of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, 1623–1673. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1957.
Herzenberg, Caroline L. Women Scientists from Antiquity to the Present. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill, 1986.
Howes, Ruth H., and Caroline L Herzenberg. Their Day in the Sun: Women of the Manhattan Project. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1999.
Hurd-Mead, Kate C. A History of Women in Medicine. Haddam, CT: Haddam, 1938.
Kass-Simon, G., and P. Furnes. Women of Science: Righting the Record. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1990.
Keller, Evelyn Fox. Reflections on Gender and Science. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1985.
Kennedy, Don H. Little Sparrow: A Portrait of Sophia Kovalevsky. Athens: Ohio UP, 1983.
Lesko, Barbara S. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Berkeley, CA: B.C. Scribe, 1978.
Marks, Geoffrey, and William K. Beatty. Women in White: Their Role as Doctors through the Ages. New York: Scribner, 1972.
Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980.
Meyer, Gerald. The Scientific Lady in England, 1650–1760. Berkeley: U of California P, 1955.
Mozans, H. J. Women in Science: With an Introductory Chapter on Women’s Long Struggle for Things of the Mind. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame UP, 1991.
National Academy of Sciences. Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. Women in Science: Antiquity through the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1993.
Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey, and Kerry Lynne Meek, eds. Women and Science, an Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1996.
Opfell, Olga S. The Lady Laureates: Women Who Have Won the Nobel Prize. Metuchen, NJ and London: Scarecrow, 1986.
Osen, Lynn M. Women in Mathematics. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1974.
Reynolds, Myra. The Learned Lady in England, 1650–1760. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1920.
Rossiter, Margaret. Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1982.
________. Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action 1940–1972. Baltimore MD: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1995.
Schiebinger, Londa. The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1989.
Shteir, Ann B. Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760–1860. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1996.
Spender, Dale. Women of Ideas and What Men Have Done to Them: From Aphra Behn to Adrienne Rich. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.

Unit 11: The Shrinking World

Supplementary Readings
Agar, Jon. Turing and the Universal Machine: The Making of the Modern Computer. Cambridge: Icon, 2001.
________. The Government Machine. Cambridge: MIT P, 2002.
Aldersey-Williams, Hugh. The Most Beautiful Molecule: The Discovery of the Buckyball. New York: Wiley, 1995.
Anderson, Frank Walter. Orders of Magnitude: A History of NACA and NASA, 1915–1980. Washington, DC: NASA, 1981.
Aspray, William. John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1990.
Baggott, J. E. Perfect Symmetry: The Accidental Discovery of Buckminsterfullerene. New York: Oxford UP, 1994.
Baldi, Pierre. The Shattered Self: The End of Natural Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 2001.
Bryson, Bill. A Short History of Nearly Everything. Mississauga, ON: Anchor, 2003.
Campbell-Kelly, Martin, ed. Passages in the Life of a Philosopher. London: William Pickering, 1994.
Campbell-Kelly, Martin, and William Aspray. Computer: A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996.
Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.
Ceruzzi, Paul. A History of Modern Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1998.
Clarke, Arthur Charles. Ascent to Orbit: A Scientific Autobiography; The Technical Writings of Arthur C. Clarke. New York: Wiley, 1984.
Coles, Peter. Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure. Chichester: John Wiley, 2002.
Copeland, B. Jack, ed. The Essential Turing. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.
________. Alan Turing’s Automatic Computing Engine. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
De Groot, Gerard J. Dark Side of the Moon: The Magnificent Madness of the American Lunar Quest. New York: New York UP, 2006.
Dickson, Paul. Sputnik: The Launch of the Space Race. Toronto: Macfarlane Walter and Ross, 2001.
Drexler, K. Eric. Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. London: Fourth Estate, 1996.
Gruntman, Mike. Blazing the Trail: The Early History of Spacecraft and Rocketry. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004.
Hodges, Andrew. Turing: A Natural Philosopher. London: Phoenix, 1997.
Hyman, Anthony. Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984.
Ifrah, Georges. A Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York: Wiley, 2001.
Killian, James Rhyne. Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower: A Memoir of the First Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1977.
Leavitt, David. The Man Who Knew Too Much—Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer. London: Orion Books, 2006.
Lee, Thomas F. The Human Genome Project: Cracking the Genetic Code of Life. New York: Plenum, 1991.
Marvin, Ursula B. Continental Drift: The Evolution of a Concept. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution P, 1973.
McLaren, Angus. A History of Contraception: From Antiquity to the Present Day. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1990.
Mulhall, Douglas. Our Molecular Future: How Nanotechnology, Robotics, Genetics, and Artificial Intelligence Will Transform Our World. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2002.
NASA. Space Flight: The First 30 Years. Washington, DC: NASA, Office of Space Flight, 1991.
Neufeld, Michael J. Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007.
Oreskes, Naomi. The Rejection of Continental Drift: Theory and Method in American Earth Science. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.
Piszkiewicz, Dennis. The Nazi Rocketeers: Dreams of Space and Crimes of War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
Rifkin, Jeremy. The Biotech Century: Harnessing the Gene and Remaking the World. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher-Putnam, 1998.
Riordan, Michael. The Hunting of the Quark: A True Story of Modern Physics. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
Smith, Robert W. The Space Telescope: A Study of NASA, Science, Technology and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989.
Stein, Dorothy. Ada, A Life and a Legacy. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1985.
Stine, G. Harry. ICBM: The Making of the Weapon that Changed the World. New York: Orion Books, 1991.
Swade, Doron. The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage and the Quest to Build the First Computer. New York: Viking, 2001.
Taubes, Gary. Bad Science: The Short Life and Weird Times of Cold Fusion. New York: Random House, 1993.
Verschuur, Gerrit L. The Invisible Universe Revealed: The Story of Radio Astronomy. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
Ward, Bob. Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005.
Wegener, Alfred. The Origin of Continents and Oceans. London: Methuen, 1966.
Wilson, J. Tuzo. IGY: The Year of the New Moons. London: Michael Joseph, 1961.